Emergency services were called to Woodhouse on Monday night after a gun was fired at a car outside the Co-op on Chapel Street, Woodhouse.
Three men jumped into the grey-silver estate and sped off from the crime scene, with detectives working on the assumption that the car was occupied at the time.
Six arrests have been made, with four men and a boy from Sheffield, plus a woman from Rotherham, all held today on suspicion of possession of a firearm with intent to cause fear or violence
The men are 18, 20, 28 and 43; the boy is 17 and the woman is 25.
South Yorkshire Police said the incident is being treated as a ‘standalone’ and ‘targeted ‘attack.
It is being investigated as a firearms offence and ‘potential missing persons enquiry’.
The force said: “We are keeping an open mind as to whether this could be linked to any other incidents but at this time we believe it to be a standalone incident.
“We do believe this to be a targeted attack.”
The shooting was one of three in Sheffield in less than a week.
A 39-year-old man was shot at as he got out of a car in Malton Street, Pitsmoor, last Wednesday and a car was shot at in Raby Street, Tinsley, last Friday.
Anyone with information should call South Yorkshire Police on 101.