A gun was fired at a car parked outside the Co-op on Chapel Street, Woodhouse, at around 8.10pm yesterday and three men then jumped into the silver-grey estate and sped off.
It is not known whether anyone was in the vehicle at the time or if anyone was injured.
No arrests have yet been made.
A police cordon has been erected at the crime scene while police enquiries in and around Woodhouse continue today.
CCTV cameras are being checked for footage of the incident and those involved.
South Yorkshire Police said extra officers will be seen in Woodhouse today.
The force added: “Members of the public can expect to see an increased police presence in the area today, for their reassurance.”
Anyone with information should call South Yorkshire Police on 101.