The two-storey pane of glass blew into the communal reception area at Roman Ridge on Lavender Way, Wincobank, when the metal frame buckled during a huge gust of wind when Storm Ciara hit on Sunday.
A number of people were in the reception area when the wall of glass blew inside and one woman taken to hospital for treatment.
Peter Hurst, 59, whose 88-year-old mum was injured, said he is concerned about the safety of the retirement living complex.
In 2014, dozens of residents were evacuated from the complex when part of the roof blew off during a storm, when winds reached 92 mph.
Mr Hurst is calling for a full structural examination of the complex after the latest storm damage.
"My mum and sister were sitting in the reception area waiting for a taxi for my sister when a double height pane of glass blew inside where they were, when the metal framework buckled in the wind,” he said.
“The glass shattered and I just do not know how nobody was killed. They will never be as fortunate again.”
He added: “I want reassurances that a full structural assessment will be carried out because it is worrying that the building has been damaged by storms so severely twice now.”
Police officers, firefighters and paramedics were deployed to the complex after reports of the damage were made.
In a statement, Sanctuary Housing, which runs the complex, said: “The window damaged by the extreme weather conditions is being securely boarded up and we will arrange for permanent repairs to be carried out as soon as possible.
“We can reassure residents that our maintenance staff will be working with external contractors to inspect the rest of the building to ensure that it remains safe.”
South Yorkshire Police said: “Police were called following concerns for safety at a care home on Lavender Way, Sheffield.
“It is reported that the weather caused damage to the property.
“One person was taken to hospital.”