They were charged after two men, aged 25 and 26, were shot in an incident on Cowley Gardens, Westfield, at 11.20pm on Monday.
Isiah Ellis, aged 21, of Shortbrook Way, Westfield; Benjamin Wilks, 20, of Spinkhill View, Renishaw and Chris Collins, 31, of Grange Road, Beighton, have each been charged with attempted murder and possession of a shotgun with intent to endanger life.
A fourth man, aged 21, who was arrested as part of the investigation has since been released on conditional police bail.
The men the suspects are accused of shooting were taken to hospital for medical treatment and have since been discharged.
South Yorkshire Police said: “Enquiries are ongoing.”
Anyone with information about the shooting should call the police on 101 and quote incident number 1,083 of March 1 or Crimestoppers, anonymously, on 0800 555111.