Mark Aston’s side were stung by three second half tries in ten minutes before responding with consolations courtesy of James Glover and Travis Corion.
Ryan Millar scored the Eagles’ only try of the first period, which was closely contested as Widnes led 10-6 at the interval.
Robbie Ward made his first league appearance of the year while Bobby Tyson-Wilson started alongside Matt James in the front-row.
Corion was given the nod for a second outing on the wing while Aston named Harry Tyson-Wilson on the bench.
Widnes opened the scoring on 16 minutes thanks to Shane Grady. The back-rower powered over from close range and Steve Tyrer was on hand to add the extras.
Sheffield replied with a try of their own. It came out of nothing as a Widnes error in attack put the ball into Millar’s hands, who sprinted 90m to the try-line. Izaac Farrell levelled matters with a conversion.
Glover got his first try of the afternoon as nice work to the flank opened up a space for the centre to exploit. Farrell hit the post with the conversion.
Three quick-fire tries for the Vikings took the game away from Sheffield. Danny Craven supported a break to cross the whitewash before Adam Lawton helped himself to a brace. Tyrer converted all three efforts.
Glover completed his brace ten minutes from time as he got on the end of an Anthony Thackeray cross-field kick. He converted his own try.
Widnes were a man light for the last play of the game after Lawton was sent off for a tackle off the ball. Another Thackeray kick to a corner was helped on by Glover, whose offload ended with Corion and the young winger did well to finish. Glover’s conversion attempt went wide.
The Eagles have won only one match in their last eight and sit ninth in the Betfred Championship table.