South Yorkshire Police said officers were called to the Barrel In, Lane End, Chapeltown, at around 6am on Saturday following reports that a man had been attacked.
They found a 40-year-old man who was taken to hospital with a serious head injury.
Rachel West, 30, of Lane End, Chapeltown, was arrested and charged with assault and wounding with intent.
She was later released pending an appearance at court.
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Anyone with information should call South Yorkshire Police on 101.