The blaze broke out on the Southbound stretch of the motorway between junction 35 and junction 34.
Firefighters from South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue attended the scene, and the vehicle on fire was extinguished.
Traffic was stopped briefly but has now been released, although delays are expected with queues spanning around 4 miles.
Highways England said: “Traffic has now been released on the #M1 southbound in #SouthYorkshire between J35 (Rotherham) and J34 (Sheffield) following the earlier vehicle fire.
“1 lane (of 4) remains closed at this time. There's a 25 minute delay with 4 miles of congestion on approach.”
The J34 southbound exit slip road is also closed as a result of the incident.