Firefighters were called out to the TSL Turton (2014) Limited springs factory, on Effingham Street, near the city centre, with eight fire engines initially on the scene after the blaze was first reported.
The plume of smoke coming from the building could be seen for several miles across the city after the blaze was first reported at around 8pm, with firefighters receiving several reports of the blaze.
Firefighters were on the scene until around midnight fighting the fire, which was described by South Yorkshire Fire Services as causing internal damage at the site, which contains industrial machinery.
Six firefighters in breathing apparatus were involved in fighting the blaze, along with two main jet hoses. Ventilation vans were also on the scene, said firefighters.
The number of fire engines on the scene was gradually reduced as the operation to put the fire out continued.
Officers say the cause of the fire is currently unknown.
The extent of the damage to the businesses is not yet known.
TSL Turton are a family owned business, which goes back over 135 years, over which time its website says it has remained at the forefront of spring manufacturing in the UK.
They make heavy duty industrial springs at their site next to the River Don. Their products are used in industries including railways, oil and gas and oil field exploration, automotive and commercial vehicles, power generation, aerospace and defence, quarry and mining and materials handling.
The Star has contacted the firm for comment.