Sy Daouda, 20, appeared today before Sheffield Magistrates' Court in connection with an incident which took place on Thursday.
Officers received reports from a member of the public at around 4pm about a man near the cathedral who was believed to be in possession of an axe.
With assistance from the city centre CCTV control room, armed officers arrested him within minutes of receiving the call at Park Square, where he had attempted to hide.
An axe was also recovered from the nearby area.
A 20-year-old man was arrested on suspicion of affray, possession of a bladed article and possession of class b drugs.
A police spokesperson said: "South Yorkshire Police will always treat calls of this nature seriously and those found in possession of items such as these can face length prison sentences."