The 17-year-old was shot in Nodder Road, close to the junction with Hastilar Road South, Woodthorpe, at around 9.10pm yesterday.
He was rushed to hospital, where he remains today.
South Yorkshire Police said his injuries are not believed to be life threatening.
A large police cordon remains in place this morning, taking in parts of Nodder Road, Hastilar Road South, Chadwick Road and Fishponds Road West.
The shooting happened close to where a 30-year-old man was shot in his leg in Chadwick Road on May 8.
That gun attack, in broad daylight, happened close to Woodthorpe Community Primary School.
Three weeks earlier a 42-year-old man was shot in his leg in Nodder Road.
Detectives investigating the latest shooting want to hear from witnesses, anyone in the area at the time or anyone who saw anything suspicious.
One shocked resident, a 28-year-old mum-of-two, said: "It is getting ridiculous now this.
"When I first moved here two years ago there was a shooting and I thought 'Oh, no, what have I let myself in for?'.
"I've got two kids, aged three and four, and I just want to move now.
"There was a man stabbed to death at Woodhouse, then a boy killed at Lowedges and now this - all in a matter of weeks."
Anyone with information on last night's shooting should call South Yorkshire Police on 101 and quote incident number 989 of June 11.