The fight broke out on a train travelling between Barnsley and Wombwell at 5.30pm on Friday, March 25.
DC Ian Grice, of British Transport Police, said: “A group of Scunthorpe United supporters travelling to Sheffield from Barnsley ended up fighting with rival Barnsley supporters on the same train.
“As a result one Scunthorpe supporter sustained a cut to the head and needed stitches.
“This was a nasty fight that broke out in the middle of a busy train at peak time and something many commuters will have witnessed. We urge them to get in touch to help us with our enquiries.”
A 42-year-old Barnsley man has been arrested and bailed until April 22.
Anyone with information should call British Transport Police on 0800 40 50 40 or Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111.