Police were called to a domestic incident at a property in Carlton Street, Grimethorpe, around 3am on Sunday morning.
A man reported to be in possession of a knife threw items at officers, with one hit in the face and needing hospital treatment.
The man fled the scene, resulting in specialist officers being sent in to search for the man.
A 34-year-old man has been arrested on suspicion of assault and affray and is currently in police custody.
Superintendent Natalie Shaw, who oversaw the incident, said: “We appreciate that for the community in Barnsley, so many police may have been concerning but we had to ensure the public’s safety at all times.
“We are very grateful for the public’s understanding and cooperation while we carried our enquiries to locate this individual.”
Nobody else is understood to have been injured.