Firefighters from Chesterfield, Staveley and Clay Cross were called to the blaze on Devonshire Road East, Hasland, at about 5.30pm.
They used the aerial ladder platform to battle the fire with several jets – as a huge plume of smoke rose into the sky.
A spokesman for Derbyshire fire service tonight said: “A man has been taken to Chesterfield Royal Hospital.
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“Crews are currently damping down and a fire investigation is taking place.”
Police are at the scene.
Residents reported hearing “large explosions” and seeing “lots of smoke”.
Julia Greatorex said: “The fire looked horrendous.
“I drove past before the emergency services arrived and there were flames coming out of the downstairs windows. The window frame just melted and fell off.
“I hope everyone’s safe and well.”
Victoria Bramley said: “I could smell burning in my back garden on Spital Brook Close.
“I thought it was a bonfire.”
On Twitter, Ash Robinson said the fire looked “horrific”.
Hasland Road was closed but has now reopened.
Keep checking back for updates.