The man, who has not been named, was in a Volkswagen Bora heading towards Doncaster which collided with the rear of a Mercedes Sprinter flat-bed highways maintenance vehicle, the driver of which was setting up roadworks on the A638 near Red House last night.
Four of the five occupants of the grey Volkswagen, including the driver, fled immediately.
The front seat passenger, a 32-year-old man, remained trapped.
He was released and taken to hospital and remains in a serious condition.
Police are appealing for witnesses to the collision which happened at 10:30pm near to junction 38 of the A1(M).
Officers want to speak to anyone with information or anyone with dash-cam footage of the incident.
Call 101 and quote incident number 1212 of 9 May.