Firefighters from Barnsley, Cudworth, Tankersley and Penistone stations were called to the blaze on Clarendon Street at 9.30pm yesterday and found the ground floor of a mid-terraced property alight.
They searched the house and discovered a man in his 60s in the property.
The man died following the blaze, but it has not yet been revealed whether he was already dead when emergency services arrived or whether he lost his life later.
A spokeswoman for South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue said: "Upon arrival, firefighters wearing breathing apparatus found the ground floor of the mid-terraced property well alight.
"The male occupant, believed to be in his 60’s, has unfortunately died following the fire.
"An extensive multi-agency investigation to determine the circumstances surrounding the fire and death will now take place."