SCR launched its refreshed strategy at a conference in February and the consultation comes to an end on April 1.
Leaders said South Yorkshire's directly-elected mayor, which is due to take up office in May, could help drive forward the ambitious plans.
Martin McKervey, transport lead for the SCR Local Enterprise Partnership and a partner at international law firm CMS, said: "We want to get as many more views as possible on our ambitious strategy.
"It’s designed to make the region more prosperous by making it easier to get to access work and opportunities in the North, and improving the air quality through sustainable travel choices.”
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The strategy has been refreshed and the period it now covers has been extended to 2040.
It doesn't as yet include details of specific road, rail or public transport schemes but aims to grow the city region's economy by £500 million by increasing the numbers of people able to get to key employment sites and education by public transport in 30 minutes.
It also aims to increase rail commuting between the SCR and both Greater Manchester and Leeds City Regions by several thousand journeys daily, and ensuring 90 per cent of the region’s population can reach a long-haul airport by public transport within 90 minutes.
Other aims include creating healthy, safe streets by increasing sustainable travel, delivering reduced accident rates, improving air quality, having a zero-carbon public transport network by 2040 and boosting footfall in the main retail and leisure areas by 15 per cent.
Mr McKervey added: “We have already achieved a great deal in terms of building a thriving, super-connected and successful economy, such as making multi-million-pound road improvements to unlock growth, introducing new tram-trains and contributing to the continuing growth of Doncaster Sheffield Airport. But we know there is more to be done, and we need to know what the region thinks.
“I urge everyone not to miss out on telling us what you think. What you say will shape our ambitions for transport across the region and have a powerful impact on the lives of us all for decades to come.”