A 25-year-old man was shot in his chest in Butterthwaite Road, Shiregreen, at 7.30pm last night.
An eye witness claimed he saw two men pointing a gun at the victim and that one of them opened fire twice.
He said he heard another gunshot just moments beforehand.
South Yorkshire Police said the victim was taken to hospital and is in a stable condition this morning.
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Two residents claim there was a police probe into another shooting on their street around six months ago, in which another man was injured.
Details have not yet been confirmed by South Yorkshire Police.
Lats June a man in his 60s was shot during a break-in at his home in nearby Hartley Brooke Road - just off Butterthwaite Road
Johnathon McGregor, aged 24, of Kyle Close, Southey Green, shot the 63-year-old man in his stomach during a burglary.
McGregor was found guilty of grievous bodily harm, attempted robbery and possession of a firearm after a trial.
His victim needed to have part of his bowl removed and part of his leg amputated.