Alex Kiwomya opened the scoring on his first start for Rovers and centre back Tom Anderson netted either side of half time.
The much-needed victory, Rovers' first in ten attempts, moved them six points clear of the drop zone and consigned Fleetwood to a seventh straight defeat.
Darren Ferguson wielded the axe following Tuesday's dismal defeat at Walsall by making five changes and reverting to 4-4-2, dropping Ian Lawlor, Jordan Houghton, Ben Whiteman, Matty Blair and Rodney Kongolo.
Those selected responded by delivering an efficient display against a side clearly low on confidence.
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Despite a subdued start Rovers went ahead with their first meaningful attempt on goal after 13 minutes. John Marquis did well in the left channel and supplied a good cross for Kiwomya to get in front of his man and divert home from close range.
Either side of the goal Ashley Hunter had gone close for the visitors but Uwe Rosler's men looked understandably low on belief.
Rovers, who were concentrating on doing the basics right and whose defending was notably no-nonsense, doubled their lead just before the half hour mark.
Marquis's powerfully struck free-kick from the edge of the area was parried by Doncaster-born goalkeeper Alex Cairns and Anderson was on-hand to convert the rebound.
Alfie Beestin, who shone on the right side of midfield, went close to extending the lead shortly after the re-start following neat link-up play with James Coppinger but his shot hit the outside of the post.
Minutes later, however, Rovers did find the net again when Anderson stayed forward and headed home Tommy Rowe's inswinging cross in impressive fashion.
Marko Marosi had to make a smart save to deny Jordy Hiwula but Fleetwood never seriously threatened any sort of comeback.
Rovers: Marosi, Alcock, Anderson, Boyle, Mason, McCullough, Rowe, Beestin (Blair 79), Coppinger, Kiwomya (May 72), Marquis. Subs not used: Lawlor, Whiteman, Houghton, Kongolo, Baudry.
Fleetwood: Cairns, Coyle, Eastham, Bolger, O'Connor (Hiwula 46), Dempsey, Grant (McAleny 46), Diagouraga, Hunter, Burns (Jones 61), Madden. Subs not used: Neal, Pond, Schwabl, Sowerby.
Referee: Darren Drysdale
Attendance: 7,013 (144)