The house fire happened at a property in Maple Avenue in Cantley.
Fire crews from Adwick, Maltby and Edlington stations were called to the incident at around 7:40pm.
The occupant was already outside the semi-detached house when crews arrived.
A South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue spokesman said: "Firefighters wearing breathing apparatus entered the house and rescued the dog. Crews administered oxygen to the dog to bring it round.
"A vet was called to the incident to check on the dog. It is believed that the dog is now recovering well.
"The ground floor of the property was well alight. Crews used hose reels to put the fire out.
"An investigation into the cause of the fire will now take place."
Firefighters left the scene at 10pm.