The 42-year-old was arrested yesterday over a drive-by shooting on Northern Avenue, Arbourthorne, on Sunday, January 12 in which a young boy was injured.
The youngster needed surgery after suffering for a gunshot wound to his leg but has since been discharged from hospital.
South Yorkshire Police said the woman arrested over the incident is being held on suspicion of conspiracy to murder and possession of a firearm with intent to endanger life.
A total of four arrests have been made so far.
Stephen Dunford, 25, of Fellbrigg Road, Arbourthorne, is in custody after being charged with attempted murder and possession of a firearm with intent to endanger life.
Two 30-year-old men quizzed over the shooting have been released on bail
Anyone with information should call South Yorkshire Police on 101 and quote incident number 516 of January 12.