A murder probe was launched after a 20-year-old, named locally as Lewis Williams, was gunned down close to the Farmfoods store on Wath Road, Mexborough, at around 5pm yesterday.
Despite the efforts of paramedics, he could not be saved and was pronounced dead at the scene.
A 17-year-old boy was arrested on suspicion of murder in the early hours of this morning.
The shooting is being treated as a targeted attack.
Superintendent Neil Thomas said: “There will be a large number of officers in the area in the coming days as we continue to investigate this horrendous incident, in which a young man has tragically died.
“We believe that the incident yesterday was a targeted attack.
“We now need the help of the community to identify those responsible and bring them to justice. I would urge anyone who may have witnessed the incident, or who has any information which may help, to talk to us.”
Detectives remain in the area today, trawling CCTV footage and carrying out house to house enquiries as they work to establish the exact circumstances surrounding the incident and apprehend those responsible.
They are particularly keen to hear from anyone who was driving in the area of Wath Road around the time of the incident who may have dash cam footage that could assist with the investigation.
Anyone with information should call South Yorkshire Police on 101 and quote incident number 495 of January 11.