Work to install new safety barriers on the upper deck of the Tinsley Viaduct is due to begin on Monday.
The Highways Agency will shortly be carrying out the safety improvements until September.
Highways Agency project manager, Tim Calvert, said: “The new barriers will improve safety on the M1 in South Yorkshire.
“This is a specialist engineering scheme which will take six months.
“The new barrier units need to precisely positioned on the viaduct and only a small number of sections can be positioned at a time. In addition, essential central reservation concrete repairs, waterproofing and drainage renewal work will also be carried out.
“During the work we advise road users to plan their journeys to avoid delays.”