Sports engineering experts at Sheffield Hallam University have helped kick off the new football season in Europe, after being drafted in to help test goal line technology for League 1 in France, Serie A in Italy and the English Premier League.
Since 2013 Sheffield Hallam experts have tested the accuracy of goal line technology at every English Premier League ground prior to the start of the season.
They were also involved in testing the system for the 2014 World Cup in Brazil.
This season the team expanded their operation to help introduce goal line technology in France and Italy.
Staff and students from the Centre for Sports Engineering Research tested at 60 stadiums over the summer, including the San Siro in Milan and the Parc des Princes in Paris.
The experts put each goal line through a series of experiments designed to test the technology to its limit.
One included using high speed video techniques to determine if the ball passed the plane of the goal during an event neither the human eye, nor broadcast video replay could see.
They used a ball launcher to fire balls at high speed towards a wall, positioned just inside the goal and used a high speed camera to take detailed measurements at 2,000 frames per second to determine if a goal was scored or not.
Dr David James, director, said: “Apart from many of our staff and students having the chance to see some of Europe’s most iconic football venues, it’s exciting to be part of a new era in which technology is used to make top-level football fairer.”