n The Crimean War was fought between 1854 and 1856.
n The conflict was between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia.
n The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire.
n Most of the conflict took place on the Crimean Peninsula, which juts into the Black Sea.
n As well as Florence Nightingale’s work, the war is also remembered for the Charge of the Light Brigade, where more than 600 British soldiers were ordered to advance through a valley between two lines of Russian artillery, leading to huge losses.
n The balaclava also dates back to the Crimean War, having been made for British soldiers to keep them warm from bitter cold.
n The war came to an end with Britain and France declaring victory after peace negotiations with the Russians, who agreed not to establish naval presence on the Black Sea coast - but it came at a heavy price. More than 20,000 British died on the battlefield or from wounds or disease.